The following is the manual used to train cleanroom personnel about handling and storing acids:
Module I: Classification and Hazards of Chemicals
Unit 1: Acid Definition and Reference Table
- Are typically soluble in water.
- Are corrosive.
- Taste sour.
- Form salts when mixed with bases.
- Turn litmus paper red.
- Burn organic tissues and/or inorganic materials.
See the table below for information about acids used in the IML.
Unit 2: Base Definition and Reference Table
- Are typically water soluble.
- Are slippery.
- Taste bitter.
- Form salts when mixed with acids.
- Turn litmus paper blue.
- Are corrosive.
- Burn organic tissues.
See the table below for information about bases used in the IML.
Unit 3: Special Chemical Definition and Reference Table
- Are not acids or bases.
- Have similar properties to acids or bases.
- Are as dangerous as acids or bases.
See the table below for information about special chemicals used in the IML.
Unit 4: Special Considerations
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is EXTREMELY dangerous. Be extra attentive when working with HF. HF is colorless and odorless; it looks and smells like water. HF is an ingredient in many oxide etches which are used to etch glass. Because of the danger, only trained personnel should pour HF.
According to DuPont's MSDS, HF will:
- Penetrate skin.
- Attack (decalcify) bones.
- React with your body's chemicals to make poisonous salts.
- Kill if more than 5% of the body is exposed.
- Kill if ingested or inhaled.
- Depending on concentration, not cause pain for up to 24 hours after contact.
Some of the symptoms of HF exposure are:
- Red or white discoloration of the skin.
- Pain within 24 hours after contact.
- Discoloration under fingernails or toenails.
- When heating sulfuric acid, a mist will form. The sulfuric acid mist is a known carcinogen. As such, trained personnel should only use sulfuric acid in fume hoods.
- In all cases of chemical exposure, report the incident to the lab manager and seek medical attention immediately.
Module I self-check quiz
- 1) Acids (circle all correct answers)
- a, d, e
- a) React with bases to form salts.
- b) Have a sweet taste.
- c) Turn litmus paper blue.
- d) Are corrosive liquids.
- e) Are usually water soluble.
- 2) Write the chemical symbol of each acid on the blank next to the written name.
- a) Acetic Acid _________________
- b) Chromic Acid _________________
- c) Hydrochloric Acid _________________
- d) Hydrofluoric Acid _________________
- e) Nitric Acid _________________
- f) Phosphoric Acid _________________
- g) Sulfuric Acid _________________
- Match each acid with the characteristics below that go with it:
- 1. Acetic Acid ______
- 2. Chromic Acid ______
- 3. Hydrochloric Acid ______
- 4. Hydrofluoric Acid ______
- 5. Nitric Acid ______
- 6. Phosphoric Acid ______
- 7. Sulfuric Acid ______
- a. Liquid and vapors cause burns which may not be immediately painful or visible. Attacks glass. Use plastic containers only.
- b. Reacts vigorously with oxidizing agents and other acids (particularly nitric). Vapors cause severe burns. Odor similar to strong vinegar.
- c. Liquid and vapors are extremely corrosive to skin and mucous membranes. Generates heat upon contact with water. Reacts with acetic acid. Keep away from water.
- d. Liquid and vapors cause severe burns to skin. Corrosive to nasal passages. Contains a suspected carcinogen
- e. Liquid is highly irritating to skin. Vapors are very toxic. Contact with most metals causes formation of flammable and explosive hydrogen gas.
- f. Highly corrosive to skin, mucous membranes and teeth. Highly reactive with acetic acid. Reacts explosively with combustible organic or other oxidizable materials.
- g. Highly corrosive to skin and mucous membranes. Repeated exposure causes erosion of teeth. Strong chlorine odor at 1-5 PPM.
- 4) Bases (circle all correct answers)
- b, d, e
- a) React with salts to form acids.
- b) React with acids to form salts.
- c) Turn litmus paper red.
- d) Turn litmus paper red.
- e) Are corrosive chemicals.
- 5) Special chemicals can have characteristics similar to both acids and bases.
- a) True
- b) False
- 6) What is the correct symbol for each chemical?
- a) Hydrogen Peroxide ______________
- b) Phosphorus Oxychloride ______________
- c) Ammonium Fluoride ______________
- d) Ammonium Hydroxide ______________
- ) NH4OH
- 7) Match the acid in the left column with the characteristics that go with it in the right column:
- 1. Hydrogen Peroxide
- 2. Phosphorus Oxychloride
- 3. Ammonium Fluoride
- 4. Ammonium Hydroxide
- a. Vapors cause severe burns to the eyes, nose, throat, skin. Forms hydrochloric acid in contact with water.
- b. Irritating to skin and mucous membranes. Emits highly toxic vapors when heated.
- c. Strong oxidizing agent. Irritating to skin and mucous membranes. Reacts violently with acids and organic solvents.
- d. Highly toxic and irritating to skin and mucous membranes. Emits toxic vapors when heated or when in contact with acids.
- 8) Yellow colored or cloudy POCl3 is an indication of:
- a) Normal change
- b) Contamination
- c) Over heating
- d) High concentration
- 9) POCl3 is unstable at:
- a) High velocities
- b) High pressures
- c) High temperatures
- d) High altitudes
- 10) HF burns may not be painful for up to _______________ hours after contact.
- 24 hours
- 11) HF is colorless and may easily be mistaken for ___________.
- 12) Four early symptoms of HF burns are:
- Itching, red or white discoloration of the skin, pain within 24 hours after contact, discoloration under fingernails or toenails
Module II: Handling and Housekeeping
Unit 1: Protective Clothing
- When working with acids, bases, or other chemicals, you must wear the proper clothing. The following are the five clothing items that you must wear while working with chemicals.
- Safety glasses/goggles: Should completely cover your eye at all times.
- Safety face shield: Wear over the top of any safety glasses or goggles.
- Full-length acid smock: Wear over the cleanroom clothing.
- Rubber gloves: Wear with a two-inch cuff. This prevents acid from running down your arm. Also, inflate with nitrogen and submerse in water to check for pinhole leaks before using.
- Hard leather or other non-porous shoes
Unit 2: Transportation of Chemicals
- Transporting One Bottle
- The chemicals used in the clean room are usually stored in glass or plastic bottles. The best way to transport these chemicals by hand is to carry them in a rubber or plastic bucket. If the bottle breaks or the lid leaks, the chemical will be contained in the bucket.
- If a bucket cannot be located, the next best way to transport the chemicals is by grasping the handle with one hand, supporting the bottom of the bottle with the other hand. Carefully carry the bottle in front of you and away from your body.
- Transporting More Than One Bottle
- A chemical cart is to be used if more than one bottle must be transported. The chemical cart is loaded one bottle at a time. Always make sure that the weight is evenly distributed on the cart (this reduces the chance of the cart tipping). Push the cart from behind for better control.
Unit 3: General Handling of Chemicals
- Whenever you are working with chemicals, there is danger of spills, splashing, and unwanted chemical reactions occurring. Table 4 below provides general guidelines to follow when working with chemicals. The table contains only general guidelines and is NOT a replacement for common sense. If you have any question about anything in the lab, talk to your lab manager/supervisor.
- Use the appropriate size container for the job.
- Get help when needed.
- Clean containers after use with deionized water.
- Work under a fume hood unless you have been told otherwise by the lab manager/supervisor.
- Use a funnel when pouring chemicals into a small container.
- Open bottles slowly to avoid spilling and allow vapors to escape.
- Know what type of reactions to expect.
- Remember to triple-A (AAA): Always Add Acid to water.
- Reuse containers (adverse chemical reaction may occur).
- Eat, drink, smoke, or touch any body part before washing your hands when working with chemicals.
- Be afraid to ask questions.
- Pour leftover chemicals back in its source container, contamination may result.
- Put your face close to the bottle when pouring.
- Puncture cap or lid of any bottle.
- Play "mad scientist." You may kill or injure yourself or others.
Unit 4: Quarztware
- You may find yourself around or involved in cleaning quartzware. As such, you need to be aware of the dangers associated with degreasing and cleaning.
- You sometimes need to degrease quartzware before you clean it. You degrease with solvents to remove organic materials that hydrofluoric acid cannot remove. Because acids and solvents react violently, make sure that they cannot come in contact with each other. In particular, DO NOT degrease in the acid sink. Also, make sure all solvents are rinsed off with deionized water before cleaning.
- Clean quartzware with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Be aware that acids react violently with solvents. Make sure there are NO solvents present on the quartzware when you clean. Furthermore, DO NOT clean quartzware in the same sink used for solvents. Know the dangers of hydrofluoric acidit kills. The dangers are listed in section 1.4.
Unit 5: Acid Bench Cleanup
- A clean acid bench is a safe acid bench. Therefore, the purpose of this section is to give you general guidelines for cleaning up the acid bench. The purpose is not to provide a detailed set of procedures for cleanup; refer to the lab manager for detailed cleanup procedures.
- The following are the general cleanup checklists:
- Containers Checklist
- Return all chemicals to their proper storage area (See storage for incompatibilities).
- Dispose of any used chemicals (See disposal section).
- Rinse out and dispose of any empty chemical storage bottles.
- Rinse out all containers you have used (graduated cylinders, beaker, etc.).
- Put away all the cleaned containers.
- Acid Bench Checklist
- Rinse the acid bench surfaces clean of any chemicals.
- Rinse the acid bench sink(s) clean of any chemicals.
- Make sure the bench is dry.
- Clothing Checklist
- Remove and return to their original place:
- Rubber gloves.
- Face shield.
- Acid smock.
Module II self-check quiz
- 1) List the five items of protective equipment required before handling acids or caustics:
- a) Face shield
- b) Safety glasses or goggles
- c) Full length acid smock
- d) Rubber gloves
- e) Hard leather or other nonporous shoes
- 2) How can you prevent acid from running down your arm?
- Wear a two-inch cuff.
- 3) How can you prevent burns from leaky gloves?
- Always check for pinholes.
- 4) When transporting one glass bottle of acid, a ________________ should be used, unless a cart is the means of transportation.
- Rubber or plastic bucket
- 5) When carrying two glass bottles of acid, carry the buckets at your _____________ and do not _________________ them while walking.
- Sides, swing
- 6) If more than two bottles of acid are being transported a ____________________ must be used.
- Chemical cart
- 7) Load the bottles on the cart ________________ at a time using _____________ hands.
- One, both
- 8) If less than a full cart of acid is required, be sure to evenly __________________ the weight of the bottles on the cart.
- 9) ____________ the cart from behind will provide the best control during transportation.
- 10) No matter how large or small a volume of acid you are transporting, you must wear all items on the _________________________________.
- Dress Code Checklist
- 11) Do not _____________ chemicals not called for in a formula.
- 12) The AAA Rule means: Always add ______________ to _______________.
- Acid, water
- 13) Use a ________________ hood when pouring acids or caustics.
- Fume hood
- 14) Do not pour chemicals ______________ into their bottles.
- 15) Never leave containers ________________ unless they are clearly labeled.
- 16) No ______________, _________________, or ______________ when handling acids and caustics.
- Eating, drinking, smoking
- 17) Hold bottles _________ from face when pouring.
- 18) Use a ______________if pouring into a small container.
- 19) Read the ___________ to be sure of the chemical you are using.
- 20) Open acid containers _____________ to allow vapors to escape and to avoid spilling.
- 21) Never ______________ the cap or lid of an acid bottle.
- 22) Empty acid and base bottles should be rinsed ______________ times with water prior to disposal of the container.
- 23) Always check with your ______________ before using any new chemicals.
- 24) __________________ is used to clean quartzware.
- Hydrofluoric Acid (HF)
- 25) Make sure there are no ____________ present on the quartzware you clean.
- 26) Describe the proper way to check for pinholes. ________________________________________________________________.
- Inflate the gloves with nitrogen, then submerse them in water while looking for bubbles to form.
- 27) Acid sinks and station surfaces must be kept _______________ and ___________at all times.
- Clean, dry
- 28) Unattended wet work is a _________________________.
- Safety hazard
Module III: Storage and Disposal
Unit 1: Incompatibles
- You must make sure that accidental mixing does not happen between any chemical. In particular, you need to keep the chemicals in table 5 separate. If you do not, serious chemical reactions may occur. As with any chemical, find someone who is trained to work with these chemicals if you do not have the necessary training, or whenever you are unsure on how to handle, mix, store, or dispose of these chemicals.
Unit 2: Storage
- Like proper handling, proper storage of the chemicals will ensure everyone's safety. Therefore you must make sure to do the following:
- Store acids and bases in separate cabinets.
- Keep acids and solvents in different cabinets.
- Label shelves for quick chemical identification.
- Make sure that incompatibles are not stored on the same shelf.
- Keep same shaped bottles on the same shelf to conserve shelf space.
- Never store chemical containers anywhere except in designated cabinets.
- Also, keep in mind that chemicals usually have a shelf life, like food at a grocery store. When a chemical is past its shelf life, notify the lab manager and have a properly trained individual dispose of the chemical.
- When you need to use the chemicals:
- Take the oldest container whose shelf life has not expired.
- Make sure the container is sealed when you return it.
- Always return the container to its labeled shelf.
Unit 3: Disposal
- Ask your lab manager where the chemical disposal bottles are located. These bottles are label by the name of the chemical that goes in it.
- DO NOT use any bottle that is not labeled unless it is a new bottle.
- DO NOT use any bottle that is labeled with a different chemical's name.
- If you are disposing of a chemical in a bottle that is being used for the first time, be sure to label it with that chemical's name. When the bottles become full, notify the lab manager who will call the chemical disposal unit.
- Also, please be aware that cascades and bubblers are not designed for acid disposal. Use them only for washing wafers or you will clog the filters.
Module III self-check quiz
- 1) Acids and solvents must not be present on (in) the same:
- a) Fab
- b) Delivery cart
- c) Storage cabinet
- d) Clean room
- e) a, b, c
- f) b, c
- g) All of the above
- 2) Segregate acids and bases that ___________ with one another.
- a) Combine
- b) Complement
- c) Neutralize
- d) React
- e) Repel
- 3) Grouping bottles of the same shape together (as long as the contents don't react with one another) should be done to:
- a) Maximize shelf space
- b) Look pretty
- c) Comply with OSHA code
- d) Win the Enviros award
- 4) Labeling cabinet shelves will speed:
- a) Delivery time
- b) Identification of bottles
- c) Segregation of bottles
- d) None of the above
- 5) Closed containers are to be stored:
- a) On the floor
- b) In rubber buckets
- c) In chemix
- d) In appropriate racks
- 6) When stocking chemicals from the cabinet to the clean station, use the _____________ method.
- a) First in, first out
- b) Last in, last out
- c) First in, last out
- d) Last in, first out
- 7) When the disposal bottles become full, notify _________ who will call the chemical disposal unit.
- a) The professor who is supervising you
- b) Carry Smith
- c) The student health center
- d) The lab manager
- 8) If you are disposing of a chemical in a bottle that is being used for the first time, be sure to __________ it with that chemical's name.
- 9) For disposing of a chemical do not use any bottle that is a labeled with a __________ chemical's name.
- 10) You may use any bottle that is not labeled for disposing of a chemical.
- a) True
- b) False
Module IV: Safety
Unit 1: Chemical Spills
- Try to prevent spills from happening. When a spill does occur, follow the guidelines below.
- If there are fumes, leave and evacuate others immediately.
- Do not attempt to wipe up the spill.
- Do not dilute the spill.
- Block off the area.
- Contact one of the following people starting at the top of the list for cleanup:
- Phil Brown 422-4344
- Chemical Cleanup 422-6156
- Aaron Hawkins 422-8693
- John Harb 422-4393
- If the spills is smaller than a half dollar, and is on the acid bench, you may use the sprayer to gently rinse it down the sink.
Unit 2: First Aid
- Always exercise caution when in the lab to prevent accidents. If an accident does happen, your prompt response may mean the difference between life and death. Below are procedures that may save someone's life.
- Please take note of where the safety shower and eyewash station are in the clean room.
- For any case, call the following contact numbers for medical help:
- Student Health Center 378-2771
- Carry Smith 372-1412
- Phil Brown 422-4344
- BYU Police 422-2222
- Emergency Room 911
- A description of hydrofluoric acid is given in section 1.4. This includes symptoms of exposure.
- Hydrofluoric Acid burns to the eye
- Call for medical attention!
- Immediately rinse exposed eye with water for 5 minutes at the eye wash station.
- Apply calcium gluconate (1%) solution to the exposed eye.
- Hydrofluoric Acid burns to the skin
- Call for medical attention!
- Immediately get in the shower and wash for 5 minutes.
- Remove ALL clothing while in the shower.
- After the shower, have someone massage calcium gluconate (2.5%) gel into exposed area and with gloves.
- Anyone who has touched the exposed area without gloves must also follow the above procedures.
- Inhalation of Chemicals
- Call for medical attention immediately!
- Get to fresh air.
- General Ingestion of Chemicals
- Call for medical attention immediately!
- Unless told otherwise by trained personnel, drink water to dilute the chemical.
- General Chemical Burns to the Eye (Except Hydrofluoric Acid)
- Immediately rise eyes with water for 15 minutes in the eye wash station.
- Seek medical attention.
- General Chemical Burns to the Skin (Except Hydrofluoric Acid)
- Immediately get in the shower and wash exposed area for 15 minutes.
- Remove all clothing while in the shower.
- Seek medical attention.
Unit 3 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
- Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are pages provided by the chemical manufacturer. They give information about hazards, first aid, etc. concerning that chemical.
- Sections may vary from MSDS to MSDS, but the following are the sections generally contained in an MSDS and what is listed under the sections.
- Product Identification: Chemical name, formula, and molecular weight.
- Composition: A list of the ingredients that make up the chemical.
- Hazards Identification: Hazards associated with the chemical.
- First Aid Measures: First aid procedures to perform if exposed.
- Fire Fighting Measures: Procedures for extinguishing chemical fire.
- Accidental Release Measures: Spill cleanup procedures.
- Handling and Storage: Handling and storage procedures of the chemical
- Exposure Controls/Personal Protection: What you need to wear to work with the chemical.
- Physical and Chemical Properties: Describes the appearance of the chemical as well as chemical properties such as melting point, density, ph, etc.
- Stability and Reactivity: Incompatibles and conditions when the chemical is stable.
- Toxicological Information: List whether the chemical is carcinogenic or toxic.
- Ecological Information: Environmental considerations.
- Disposal Considerations: Procedures to dispose of the chemical.
- Transportation: How the chemical can be transported.
- Other Information: Miscellaneous information like ratings by NFPA, and NPCA-HMIS for the chemical.
- The MSDS sheets for the IML are located at the following places:
- Outside the front door of the IML.
- In the IML technical library.
- Utah Valley Region Medial Center (IHC UVMRC).
Module IV self-check quiz
- 1) In the event of an acid spill, do not use water to dilute the spill. Instead, cover the spill with paper towels.
- a) True
- b) False
- 2) Corrosiveness, concentration and temperature of the chemical, as well as duration of contact with skin will determine the ___________ of an acid or caustic burn:
- a) Color
- b) Ph factor
- c) Location
- d) Severity
- 3) In case of an acid or caustic burn, wash the affected area with water for at least:
- a) 5 minutes
- b) 10 minutes
- c) 15 minutes
- d) Until the pain stops
- 4) In case of a chemical burn of the eye you would:
- a) Rinse thoroughly with water.
- b) Rinse with neutralizer.
- c) Coat with an antiseptic cream or ointment
- d) All of the above
- 5) Only the most severe burns need to be reported to the EMTs.
- a) True
- b) False
- 6) In case of a chemical burn of the eye, forcibly hold the ____________ open to ensure that the entire eye is flushed.
- 7) It is not important to tell the EMT the name and concentration of the acid which caused the burn.
- a) True
- b) False
- 8) If a HF burn is suspected, rinse the affected area for at least:
- a) 5 minutes.
- b) 10 minutes.
- c) 15 minutes.
- d) 20 minutes.
Acids used in the IML:
||Liquid and vapors cause severe burns to skin. Reacts vigorously with oxidizing agents and other acids (particularly nitric). Odor similar to that of strong vinegar.
||Incompatible with most other acids. Store alone!
||Liquid and vapors cause severe burns to skin. Corrosive to nasal passages. Contains a suspected carcinogen.
||Highly corrosive to skin and mucous membranes. Repeated exposure causes erosion of teeth. Strong chlorine odor detectable at 1-5 PPM.
||Liquid and vapors cause burns that may not be immediately painful or visible. HF attacks glass. HF looks like water and can kill in small amounts. Found in Buffered Oxide Etch (BOE).
||Use only plastic containers.
||Highly corrosive to skin, mucous membranes and teeth. Highly reactive with acetic acid. Reacts explosively with combustible organic or other oxidizable materials.
||Use only glass containers.
||Liquid is highly irritating to skin. Vapors are highly toxic. Contact with most metals causes formation of flammable and explosive hydrogen gas.
||Liquid and vapors are extremely corrosive to skin and mucous membranes. Generates heat upon contact with water. Reacts with acetic acid.
||Keep away from water.
||Irritating to skin and mucous membranes. Emits highly toxic vapors when heated.
Bases used in the IML:
||Highly toxic and irritating to skin and mucous membranes. Emits toxic vapors when heated or when in contact with acids.
||Strong oxidizing agent. Irritating to skin and mucous membranes. Reacts violently with acids and organic solvents.
||Cap with vented cap. Do not boil in open vessels, may cause explosion.
||POCI3 and its vapors cause severe burns to the eyes, nose, throat, skin and mucous membranes. POCI3 and water, when combined, will form hydrochloric acid and will produce a violent, exothermic reaction. POCI3 is unstable at high temperatures.
||Keep away from water. Discard gloves discolored by POCI3. Discard yellow or cloudy POCI3 as it may be contaminated.
Special chemicals used in the IML:
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