Photolithography Terms and Definitions Page
- Description and Purpose
- Definitions for different lithography terms and other cleanroom jargon.
- A light sensitive material that can be used to form a patterned coating on a surface.
- Positive Resist
- A photoresist that becomes soluble to developer after exposure. Unexposed portions remain insoluble.
- Negative Resist
- A photoresist that becomes insoluble to developer after exposure. The unexposed portions are soluble.
- Dry Film Photoresist
- A photoresist that comes as a uniform thickness, semi-solid film on a polyester substrate and is applied through lamination, instead of being in a liquid form.
- Process of subjecting photoresist to intense light, or something else such as an electron beam, to create a desired pattern by chemically altering portions of it.
- After photoresist is exposed a chemical known as a developer is used to remove portions of the photoresist from the substrate.
- The use of a liquid (wet) or plasma (dry) chemical agent to remove the uppermost layer(s) of the substrate in areas not protected by photoresist.
- Pattern definition method which uses UV radiation to expose the resist; the most common lithography technique in semiconductor manufacturing. Advantages: exposes entire surface simultaneously, exact control over shape and size - Disadvantages: requires flat substrate, requires a mask
- Contact Lithography
- Form of photolithography in which the image to be developed is obtained by illumination of a photomask in direct contact with the photoresist coated substrate; Achieves higher resolution, but can damage both the mask and substrate.
- Proximity Lithograpy
- Similar to contact lithography, but a small gap is introduced between the mask and the substrate; Has lower resolution due to this gap and diffraction, but used more than contact lithography because it is not as damaging to mask and substrate.
- Projection Lithography
- Achieves higher resolution by projecting the pattern to be developed onto the substrate through a lens system. Highly used for IC production.
- A machine that uses projection lithography and a 'step-and-repeat' method to expose one small grid area of a wafer at a time and then moves on to the next until the entire wafer has been exposed.
- Electron beam lithography (e-beam)
- A beam of electrons scans across the surface of the resist exposing some areas and not others in a patterned fashion. Advantages: maskless, diffraction limit of light not a problem - Disadvantages: long exposure time, not good for high-volume production
- Photolithography using 365 nm wavelength UV radiation for exposure.
- Photolighography using 405 nm wavelength UV radiation for exposure.
- Photolithography using 436 nm wavelength UV radiation for exposure.
- Absorption Coefficient
- Defines depth of penetration of a given medium with the light of a given wavelength; decreases as the wavelength shortens.
- A chemical compound often used as an adhesion promoter for photoresist. Full name is hexamethyldisilazane.
- Acronym for Microelectromechanical Systems. They are very small mechanical devices driven by electricity.