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Solvent Safety

The following is the manual used to train cleanroom personnel on handling and storing solvents:
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  1. Module I: Classification of Solvents

    1. Rationale:
      Knowing the names and abbreviations of solvents will allow you to recognize them quickly. Knowing the hazards associated with solvents will encourage you to handle them properly and react correctly if an accident should occur. This knowledge may aid in the prevention of injury or death to yourself and others. Knowing the symptoms and effects of exposure to solvents will alert you to possible overexposure.

    2. Objectives:
    3. You will be able to:
    4. 1. Identify solvents by their names and common abbreviations.
    5. 2. List the three major hazards associated with solvents and explain how they are controlled.
    6. 3. Define TLV and explain its importance.
    7. 4. Define Flash Point and explain its importance.
    8. 5. Explain symptoms and effects of exposure to each type of solvent.
    9. 6. List hazards associated with each solvent.
    10. 7. Define odor threshold and explain acclimation to odors.
    11. 8. Explain how a vapor wick can form and why this is a hazard.
    12. Unit 1 Introduction to Solvents and Their Abbreviations

      1. A solvent is a chemical substance which dissolves another substance. The most common solvent is water. Most of the other solvents are called organic solvents. An organic solvent is one which contains the element carbon. You will not be expected to know the chemical formulas for solvents since they tend to be very long and complicated. For example the formula for Xylene is CHCHCH.
      2. Solvents are used extensively in the electronics industry. Compounds such as Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) and acetone are used to clean and dry wafers, glassware, equipment, and most working surfaces in the lab. In addition, solvents are the principle components of many process chemicals such as photoresist.
      3. Major solvents and their abbreviations used at the IML:
        Solvent Abbreviation
        Acetone ACE
        Isopropyl Alcohol IPA
        N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone NMP
        Methyl Ethylketone MEK
        Trans 1, 2 dichloroethlene DCE
        Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate PGMEA

      4. When you feel you know this material, take the self-check quiz.

      5. Unit 1 self-check quiz
        1. 1) T / F The term organic solvent refers to the ability of a solvent to dissolve another substance.
          1. False, organic means it contains carbon.
        2. 2) List a process chemical which contains a solvent.
          1. Photoresist
        3. 3) Solvents are used to clean and dry:
          1. Glassware, wafers, and equipment.
        4. 4) What is the abbreviation for:
        5. Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate
          1. PGMEA
        6. Acetone
          1. ACE
        7. Methyl Ethylketone
          1. MEK
        8. What do the following stand for?
        9. DCE
          1. Trans 1, 2 dichloroethylene
        10. NMP
          1. N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone
        11. IPA
          1. Isopropyl Alcohol
    13. Unit 2 Introduction to Hazards

      1. There is no such thing as a "safe" solvent. Although some solvents are less hazardous than others, there is a potential hazard associated with every solvent due to its very nature. For example, a solvent that is generally "non-hazardous" during normal use may become very dangerous if a large spill occurs, if there is improper ventilation, or if a leak goes undetected. ALL solvents must be treated with respect. Different people have different tolerances to different solvents. What may not affect one person could be devastating to another.
      2. There are three primary hazards associated with solvents. Many solvents are extremely flammable and present a fire and explosion hazard. Solvents can also be toxic. The principle routes of exposure are inhalation of vapors, skin contact and or ingestion of liquids. Finally, solvents can react violently with acids, resulting in fires or explosions.

      3. Unit 2 self-check quiz
        1. 1) List the three primary hazards associated with solvents.
          1. Fire, toxicity, reaction with acids
        2. 2) T/ F A safe solvent is one that has a very low potential of toxicity, a high flash point, and does not react with acids and can be used without any worry.
          1. False, there is no such thing as a safe solvent. Even water reacts violently with some acids.
        3. 3) Solvents may be toxic if they:
          1. Are inhaled, ingested, or contact the skin.
    14. Unit 3 Flammability

      1. A flammable solvent is an organic liquid whose vapor can form an ignitable mixture with air. ALL flammable solvents evaporate readily. ALL the elements of the fire triangle are present when an ignition source is added. Sources of ignition include, but are not limited to, open flames, heaters, electrical equipment, and static electricity. ALL equipment that uses electricity or has moving parts should be considered a possible ignition source.
      2. One measure of the flammability of a solvent is determined by its flash point. The flash point is the lowest temperature at which enough of the solvent can evaporate to form a mixture of vapor and air which will ignite if an ignition source is introduced. Many solvents have flash points below room temperature and are considered to be extremely flammable. For example, the flash point of IPA is 53° F. If a beaker of IPA is allowed to sit uncovered in the middle of a room, enough vapors would escape to form an ignitable mixture. Since room temperature is 72° F or above it would only take one spark to cause a fire or explosion.
      3. The hazards of fire or explosion can be controlled by keeping flammable liquids in closed containers, removing sources of ignition, and providing ventilation to prevent the build-up of vapors.

      4. Unit 3 self-check quiz
        1. 1) A measure of flammability of a solvent is its:
          1. Flash Point
        2. 2) A flash point is the lowest temperature at which
          1. b
        3. a) the liquid will ignite
        4. b) the vapor-air mixture above the liquid will ignite
        5. c) flames will spread across the liquid
        6. 3) A solvent with a flash point below _______ is considered to be extremely flammable.
          1. Room temperature
        7. 4) The fire hazard may be controlled by:
          1. d
        8. a) keeping solvents in closed containers
        9. b) only using solvents with high flash points
        10. c) removing all sources of ignition
        11. d) a & c
        12. e) all of the above
    15. Unit 4 Vapor Density

      1. Another physical property of solvents that increases the fire hazard is vapor density.
      2. Many solvents have vapor density greater that 1 (air = 1). This means that the solvent vapor is heavier that air and will sink to the lowest levels of a room. The concentration of solvent vapor will be much greater at floor level than at bench level or higher.
      3. For example, if an open beaker of solvent with a high vapor density is allowed to evaporate into the air, the vapor can form a vapor wick, permitting a flash back from the ignition source to the supply of the vapors. The flames travel along the vapor trail back to the beaker, igniting any combustible materials in its path and burning intensely at the surface of the beaker.

      4. Unit 4 self-check quiz
        1. 1) Some solvents are denser than ______ and will therefore ______ to the lowest point of the room.
          1. air; sink, travel, or migrate
        2. 2) The vapors from a solvent can form a vapor _____ and permit a _____ of flames from the ignitino source to the vapor source igniting all _____ in its path
          1. wick, flashback, combustibles
        3. 3) Saturation of the air with solvent vapors will:
          1. d
        4. a) ignite when the mixture reaches an ignition source
        5. b) displace oxygen making it hard or impossible to breath
        6. c) ignite all combustibles and people in the room when it is ignited
        7. d) all of the above
    16. Unit 5 Toxicity

      1. Toxicity is a general term that refers to any harmful or adverse biological effects which result from exposure to a chemical or other substance. The word "toxic" is used interchangeably with the word "poisonous." The most fundamental principle of the science of toxicology is that all substances are or have the potential to be toxic. The dose or quantity administered determines whether or not a substance will cause harmful effects.
      2. This principle gives rise to the concept of a "threshold level" or "no effect level." By definition, the threshold level is the level of exposure at which toxic effects begin to occur. If the dose or exposure is kept below the threshold level, no toxic effects will develop. All of us, including you, must be committed to keeping all chemical exposures to safe levels.
      3. Different substances or chemicals have different threshold levels. As a result, some substances are more toxic than others. All of the solvents used in the IML are safe ONLY IF they are used properly.

        Factors affecting solvent toxicity:
      4. Whether or not solvents or other chemicals cause harm to an individual depends on several factors. First, the individual must be exposed to the chemical. Exposure to industrial solvents generally occurs either by inhalation of the solvent vapors or by the liquid solvent contacting the skin. Most people are aware of the hazards of inhaling solvent vapors. However, many fail to recognize that the same toxic effects may occur if sufficient quantities of a solvent are absorbed through the skin. Additionally, solvents remove body fats and oils when they contact the skin, resulting in dry skin or dermatitis.
      5. The red or orange latex gloves are recommended for most solvents used in the IML. These gloves must be worn whenever solvents are handled and should be replaced as needed if breakthrough or penetration begins to occur.
      6. A less likely route of exposure to industrial chemicals is by ingestion. Needless to say, no industrial solvent should be ingested intentionally. Most are very toxic by this route of exposure. The majority of incidents of ingestion occur through the consumption of food that has been tainted with residual substances left on hands or surfaces such as tables.
      7. Another factor regarding solvent toxicity is the extent of exposure to the solvent. This depends on the concentration of the solvent and the duration of exposure. For most solvents, a brief exposure to low levels is not very hazardous. However, continuous exposure to low levels or brief exposures to high levels should be avoided. In general, it is best to minimize exposure to solvents as much as possible. Solvents should always be handled either in fresh air or under a ventilated hood to prevent excessive inhalation of vapors.

        Range of effects of toxicity:
      8. Toxic effects resulting from exposure to solvents may be classified as short-term (Acute) or long-term (Chronic). Acute effects include, but are not limited to, irritation of eyes and nose, headache, nausea, lightheadedness, vomiting, fatigue, sleepiness, and loss of coordination. Chronic effects usually develop after regularly repeated exposures. These effects may include liver damage, hearing damage, problems with the blood forming system, adverse reproductive effects, cancer, or other complications.

      9. Unit 5 self-check quiz
        1. 1) Toxicity refers to:
          1. b
        2. a) how rapidly a solvent evaporates
        3. b) harmful effects caused by exposure to chemicals
        4. c) a condition of the body after exposure to specific chemicals
        5. d) allergic reactions some people have to chemicals
        6. 2) T / F Given a large enough dose all substances are toxic
          1. True
        7. 3) The term "Threshold Level" refers to:
          1. d
        8. a) The level of exposure at which toxic effects may begin to occur.
        9. b) The level of exposure below which no toxic effects will occur.
        10. c) A printed form readily available in the IML
        11. d) all of the above
        12. 4) List two major ways a person is likely to be exposed to solvents.
          1. inhalation and skin contact
        13. 5) T / F The only problems that might result from skin contact with a solvent are dry skin or dermatitis.
          1. False, it may also have systemic effects
        14. 6) The concentration of solvent vapors and the _____ are important factors in solvent toxicity.
          1. duration of exposure
        15. 7) What kinds of gloves are used for handling solvents in the IML?
          1. red or orange latex gloves
        16. 8) Toxic effects resulting from exposure to solvents can be _____ or ______
          1. acute (short term) and chronic (long term)
        17. 9) List four possible effects from short term exposure to solvents.
          1. headache, nausea, lightheadedness, fatigue, vomiting, loss of coordination, sleepiness, irritation
        18. 10) List two possible chronic effects of exposure to solvents.
          1. damage to kidneys, liver, hearing, blood production, also cancer or adverse effects to the reproductive organs.
    17. Unit 6 Threshold Limit Value (TLV)

      1. The concept of a threshold level has led to the development of standards designed to protect those using chemicals from the harmful effects of industrial chemicals. The most comprehensive and up-to-date standards available are the TLV's or Threshold Limit Values. A TLV is the average level of an airborne contaminant which nearly all workers can be exposed to for 8 hours a day or 40 hours a week, over a working lifetime, without experiencing any harmful effects.
      2. For some solvents, ceiling limits and short term exposure limits have also been established. These are respectively referred to "C's" and (STEL's) for short. These standards specify the maximum levels of airborne contaminants to which an individual may be exposed for brief periods, generally 15 minutes or less, and are intended to prevent acute effects.
      3. TLV's for solvents are often expressed in parts per million or PPM. One part per million of acetone vapor in air means that there is one part of acetone for every million parts of air. To give an idea of how small a quantity of solvent it takes to reach a concentration of 100 ppm, consider a room 9 x 12 x 8. If just 3 tablespoons of acetone were evaporated in that room the average concentration of acetone would be 100 ppm. The TLV of acetone is 750 ppm.
      4. Note: It is the responsibility of all of us here at the IML to see that we do not expose ourselves or those around us to fumes of any kind. Make sure whenever you are using chemicals that you do so on the ventilated hood or bench surfaces designed for such purposes.

      5. Unit 6 self-check quiz
        1. 1) What does TLV stand for?
          1. Threshold Limit Value
        2. 2) Ceiling or short term exposure limits are designed to prevent what?
          1. acute effects
        3. 3) TLV's for solvents are often expressed in:
          1. parts per million (ppm)
    18. Unit 7 Odor Threshold

      1. When solvent fumes first escape into a room, there is usually be an odor. The concentration of the vapors in the air when the odor can first be detected is called the odor threshold. The odor threshold is different for each solvent but is generally lower than the TLV. In other words, it will usually be possible to smell solvent vapors before they reach a harmful level.
      2. There is only one catch to this statement: vapors can quickly dull the sense of smell. People become acclimated, or used to, the solvent's smell and are no longer aware of the odor. Small leaks can sneak up on those in the room because they become acclimated to the smell slowly. Someone from outside the room can walk in and smell the solvent very strongly while those acclimated would not be able to smell it at all.

      3. Unit 7 self-check quiz
        1. 1) An odor threshold is:
          1. f
        2. a) the distinct odor of each solvent
        3. b) the concentration level when an odor can first be detected
        4. c) usually higher than the TLV
        5. d) usually lower than the TLV
        6. e) b & c
        7. f) b & d
        8. 2) Strong solvent odors should be reported to the fab supervisor because it is possible to become _____ to the odor and therefore exceed the _____ .
          1. acclimated (used to), TLV
    19. Unit 8 Reaction With Acids

      1. Organic solvents react chemically with acids, producing a violent reaction. As a by-product of the chemical reaction, gases are released, as well as a great amount of heat. Therefore, acids and solvents and their vapors should never come into contact with one another.
      2. For example, whenever a solvent comes in contact with nitric acid, an explosion or fire results. Organic solvents and hot sulfuric acid react together and may explode or start a fire.

      3. Reference note:
      4. Organic solvents should never come in contact with oxidizers such as hydrogen peroxide and chromic etch. Oxidizers are a class of their own and will also react violently with organic solvents and acids.

      5. Unit 8 self-check quiz
        1. 1) T / F Solvent and acid vapors will not react because a chemical reaction only takes place between liquids.
          1. False, vapors can react with each other, too.
        2. 2) Never mix _____ and _____ because a violent chemical _____ can take place.
          1. acids, solvents, reaction
    20. Unit 9 Control of Solvent Hazards in the IML

      1. The safe use and handling of solvents depends on a combination of good work habits, proper engineering controls, and understanding of hazards associated with the solvents used. In the IML, exhaust ventilation is used to prevent solvent vapors and other chemical contaminants from permeating the lab. In addition, we try to use the safest chemicals for the specific purposes. Bulk storage is done in "flammable" storage cabinets in and out of the IML. Another factor that helps minimize the exposure is the tremendous amount of air circulating through the lab. This dilutes any vapors that escape into the work area.
      2. Once you have successfully completed this manual you should know enough to prevent solvent problems from occurring. This will allow you to perform your tasks safely. Remember, there is no substitute for good, clean work habits, especially when working with chemicals. For further information about the specific chemicals you may be working with, refer to the MSDS's located in the binders outside the IML or ask for help. Do not take chances with your safety.

      3. Unit 9 self-check quiz
        1. 1) What three factors are necessary for using solvents safely?
          1. good work habits, proper engineering controls, and knowledge of the hazards of solvents
        2. 2) Where can you find the complete information on the chemicals used in the IML?
          1. in the MSDS's
    21. Unit 10 Solvent Reference Table

      1. Directions for the solvent reference table:
      2. On the table below you will find the Fire Hazard, Toxicity Hazard, TLV, Odor Threshold, and the toxic effects listed. You need to know the fire and toxicity ratings but in the other categories you will only need to be familiar with the numeric ratings. As you look at this list you should note which symptoms the solvents cause and note the specific differences some may have. When you feel you know the important items go to the self-quiz and fill in the blanks.
  2. Module II: Handling

    1. Unit 1 Bottles

      1. All solvents used in the IML are supplied in glass or plastic one-gallon bottles. It is important to be very careful when handling any chemical in a glass bottle. This is especially true when handling solvents for two major reasons. First, if a bottle were to break near an ignition source, a serious fire would occur. Second, a one-gallon spill of solvent can release enough vapors to pose a serious health hazard to individuals in the immediate vicinity.
      2. In order to minimize these hazards, individual glass bottles must always be transported in plastic buckets. The bottles should never be swung or subjected to shocks of any kind or to careless handling. The bottle should be handled using two hands, one supporting the bottom of the bottle, the other grasping the neck. For plastic bottles a bucket is not required. A leak may develop in the bottle, but it will never break.
      3. When a bottle is received from a vendor it will have all of the pertinent warnings and precautions on the label. A more complete listing of the information pertaining to the chemical is available in the MSDS's.
      4. Empty solvent bottles should be left open under an exhaust hood to allow any residual solvent to evaporate. The bottle may then be used for disposing of used chemicals by labeling it properly and calling Chemical Management (the bomb squad) at 8-6156 to pick it up. If the bottle is not going to be reused, once it is fully evaporated it is put in that night's trash can for the janitors to pick it up.

      5. Unit 1 self-check quiz
        1. 1) What are the two major hazards of a broken bottle of solvent?
          1. fire and health hazard from inhalation of vapors
        2. 2) What is the safest wat to transport a glass solvent bottle?
          1. in a plastic bucket
        3. 3) When handling solvent bottles you should _____ and the other _____ .
          1. one hand on the bottom of the bottle and the other one on the neck
        4. 4) What is the proper way to dispose of solvent bottles?
          1. Uncap and and dry under a flow hood, then dispose in a trash can
    2. Unit 2 Storage and Use of Solvents

      1. Solvents are stored in the "flammable" storage cabinets provided for that purpose. A small amount (what you will use in a 24 hour period) can be left out of the cabinet if it is kept in a ventilated hood where the vapors will be exhausted away. This will prevent a dangerous build-up of vapors from occurring. Empty bottles should be taken care of as discussed earlier as soon as they are emptied. Do not leave empty bottles lying around because they will have residual solvents and vapors in them and will become an explosion hazard. Do not store dissimilar chemicals in the same storage cabinets. The vapors from these chemicals could mix and set off a reaction with devastating results. If you are unsure about how to store a chemical, please ask, do not guess.
      2. The "flammable" storage cabinets must be kept away from ignition sources and combustible materials such as boxes, rags, and towels. The cabinets should be located in areas 80°F or lower.
      3. Solvents must be stored and used below eye level in order to reduce the chances of getting solvents in the eyes.
      4. Squeeze bottles should be placed away from sources of ignition and where they will not be subjected to rough handling or sudden shocks. Solvent squeeze bottles must be filled at the sink where the fumes will be exhausted away.
      5. Beakers need to be covered when not in use. Solvents should only be kept in beakers for short periods of time. Beakers of solvent must be filled and used at the solvent bench so the vapors will be exhausted out of the lab area. When you are finished with the solvent, pour the used or contaminated solvent into the proper waste container. This is also done at the solvent sink.

      6. Unit 2 self-check quiz
        1. 1) Solvents shoudl always be stored in approved _____ _____ marked "flammable".
          1. Flammable cabinet
        2. 2) The following rules deal with storing solvents. Decide if each rule is true or false.
        3. a) No ventilation is needed for a flammable storage cabinet.
          1. False
        4. b) The maximum temperature at the cabinet should be 80°F.
          1. True
        5. c) Bottles can be stored on their sides.
          1. False
        6. d) Acids must never be stored with solvents.
          1. True
        7. e) Bottles must never be stored above eye level.
          1. True
        8. f) Empty bottles should be saved - waste not, want not.
          1. False
        9. g) Combustibles can be stored by the cabinets as long as they are outside the cabinet and do not obstruct the door.
          1. False
        10. 3) T / F Squeeze bottles can be left anywhere in the lab.
          1. False, not by ignition sources.
    3. Unit 3 Disposal of Waste Solvents and Housekeeping

      1. Solvents need to be collected into larger containers for pick up by Chem. Management. Small incidental quantities should be rinsed down the drain with copious amounts of water. For questions about waste solvents, contact the lab manager. Do not dump solvents down the drains.
      2. It is very important to clean up solvent spills in order to minimize the fire hazard and the amount of vapors present in the lab. If you find a spill and can not identify it, contact the lab manager or Dr. Salmon. The spilled chemical needs to be identified before it can be cleaned up. If you know what the spill is, you can only clean it up if it is less than a cup. You must use the orange rubber gloves and tex wipes. Put the saturated wipes in a plastic-lined garbage can. Once you are done cleaning up the spill and the saturated wipes are in the trash can, tie the plastic bag and remove the can with the bag in it from the lab. It is important to note that the trash can should have nothing else in it because cross contamination could cause spontaneous ignition. To clean larger spills, respirators with yellow filters must be used along with proper protective gear. The use of absorbing pillows and the proper disposal of them will be handled by trained personnel.

      3. Unit 3 self-check quiz
        1. 1) A minor solvent spill can be wiped up using _____ , and _____ .
          1. orange rubber gloves and tex wipes
        2. 2) Dispose of solvent wipes by _____ , tying the plastic bag, and then _____ for the nightly pick-up.
          1. throwing them in the garbage can, putting the trash can in the hall
        3. 3) T / F There is no need to worry about a small solvent spill because it will evaporate quickly.
        4. 4) If there is a large spill in the lab
          1. a
        5. a) get the heck out of Dodge as fast as you can and tell the lab manager or Dr. Salmon
        6. b) open the doors to get the fumes out of the lab
        7. c) hold your breath and wipe it up quickly
        8. d) vacuum it up and dump it down the drain
  3. Module III: Safety

    1. Unit 1 Protective Gear

      1. The following protective equipment is required to pour solvents and carry bottled solvents:
      2. A. Wrap-around safety glasses
      3. B. Solvent resistant gloves. These should be changed out on a regular basis as needed
      4. C. Lab apron, solvent resistant suit, or acid smock
      5. D. Closed-toe, closed-heel, nonporous shoes

        Note: You should use different gloves for working with acids and solvents so you don't run the risk of mixing chemicals. You should also observe the gloves as they come in contact with solvents to make sure the materials do not breakdown. This would cause holes to form and allow the solvent to come in contact with your skin.

      6. Unit 1 self-check quiz
        1. 1) Orange solvent resistant gloves should be worn when working with solvents because:
          1. a
        2. a) solvents may eat holes in other gloves
        3. b) they match the bunny suits better than the other types
        4. c) it lets those around you know that you are using chemicals
        5. d) becasue they are thicker than the daily use gloves
        6. 2) List the four items of protection that must be worn when working with solvents.
          1. safety glasses, gloves, lab apron, closed-toe closed-heel non-pourous shoes
    2. Unit 2 First Aid Measures

      1. The first aid measures given here are general guidelines that are appropriate in the majority of cases. There may be specific reactions that will be extreme and will need immediate medical attention. If this is the case call 8-2222 (campus security) or 911 as quick as you can.

      2. Inhalation:
        If vapors from a solvent are inhaled, resulting in marked irritation, dizziness, drowsiness, or other symptoms, remove the person to fresh air (out of doors is best). In an extreme case where the victim stops breathing, remove them from the solvent laden air and have a qualified person start administering artificial respiration while another person calls 8-2222 or 911.

      3. Eye contact:
        For a splash in the eye, rinse the eye in an eye bath for 15 minutes. Go to the Health Center. The eyes will probably feel dry and irritated but there usually will be no residual damage.

      4. Skin contact:
        For a small splash, wash the affected area with soap and water. For a large splash, go to the emergency shower and rinse while taking of the effected clothing. The clothing is very flammable and should not be worn again until it has been washed.

      5. Ingestion:
        In the unlikely event of ingestion of a solvent, keep the person quiet and have them lie down. Do not induce vomiting. Call 8-2222 or 911. Give the name of the victim, the chemical ingested, and your location. Let the response team administer the proper medical treatment.

      6. Unit 2 self-check quiz
        1. 1) If a person becomes dizzy or drowsy while working with solvents and you suspect it is from inhaling vapors you should:
          1. d
        2. a) put them in the emergency shower for 15 minutes
        3. b) keep them warm and quiet
        4. c) give artificial respiration
        5. d) remove them to fresh air
        6. 2) T / F If solvent is splashed into the eyes, rinse the eyes in the eye bath for 5 minutes.
          1. False, 15 minutes
        7. 3) If someone were to ingest solvent you should
          1. b
        8. a) induce vomiting
        9. b) keep the person quiet and call 8-2222 or 911
        10. c) notify the next of kin
        11. d) all of the above
        12. 4) In case of a large splash of solvent on the body you should:
          1. e
        13. a) don't worry about it, it wil evaporate
        14. b) shower and strip
        15. c) call 8-2222
        16. d) have your lab partner get you some clean, dry clothes
        17. e) b, c, d
    3. Unit 3 Precautions

      1. The following precautions are listed for your own protection and the protection of those in your work area. By adhering to these safety rules, you will greatly reduce the number of accidents and thus protect your own health as well as that of those around you.

        The rule is stated followed by a brief description.
      2. 1) Never mix acids and solvents. Acids and solvents react chemically to produce gases and a great amount of heat. The mixture is explosive.
      3. 2) Do not use IPA or any other solvent to clean sink surfaces. There may be residual acids on the surfaces or there may be acid vapors which can mix with the solvent's vapors.
      4. 3) Do not mix materials not called for in the instructions. A violent chemical reaction may result. Leave the chemical discoveries to those paid to risk their lives to do so.
      5. 4) Use vented exhaust hoods whenever pouring solvents. These hoods are designed to prevent the build-up of vapors.
      6. 5) Pour solvents only at the proper solvent sinks. This will prevent the build-up of vapors and the accidental mixing of chemicals.
      7. 6) Never allow solvents or their fumes to come in contact with ignition sources. Most solvents are extremely flammable and explosive.
      8. 7) Wash hands and gloves after handling solvents. Any chemical residue could cause irritation of the skin and possibly react with other chemicals you come in contact with. This is also a common cause of solvent ingestion.
      9. 8) Do not use the same pair of gloves to handle solvents and acids. Cross contamination could occur causing a chemical reaction which could cause serious burns.
      10. 9) No eating or drinking around chemicals. It would be easy to contaminate food with residual chemicals and thus cause the ingestion of these chemicals.

      11. Unit 3 self-check quiz
        1. 1)You shouldn't use solvents to clean walls and sink tops because:
          1. d
        2. a) the potential of chemical reactions with residual chemicals
        3. b) fire hazard
        4. c) inhalation of vapors
        5. d) all of the above
        6. 2) T / F it is ok to experiment with mixing chemicals if you do it under a fume hood.
          1. False
        7. 3) Solvents should be poured under a _____ _____ to control the build up of vapors.
          1. Fume hod
        8. 4) Pour solvents only at the:
          1. Solvent sinks
        9. 5) Soldering around solvents isn't wise because:
          1. it is a source of ignition
        10. 6) T / F Mixing solvents and acids can be done if it is done very slowly.
          1. False
        11. 7) It is best to wash your hands after:
          1. f
        12. a) working with solvents
        13. b) working with acids
        14. c) working with metals
        15. d) working on equipment
        16. e) fertilizing your garden
        17. f) all of the above
    4. Unit 4 MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets)

      1. OSHA hazards communication standard requires that all chemical containers and equipment containing chemicals to be labeled. These labels have four important items of information: (1) the name of the chemical(s) (2) warnings (3) hazards and (4) precautions and first aid. In addition to the labeling it also requires all manufacturers of hazardous materials to provide detailed information on the characteristics and proper handling of chemicals. This information is contained in the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
      2. At the IML, we maintain 2 complete files of the MSDS's for the chemicals used in the IML. The files are kept current as we bring new chemicals in. Before we can start using the chemical, we require the MSDS to be in our files. These files are in the binders at the entrance to the lab and in the file cabinet in the lab manager's office. Utah Valley Regional Medical Center will also have access to MSDS's of all known chemicals and their compounds.
      3. We file the MSDS in alphabetical order by their chemical name.
      4. All students, faculty, and staff have full access to these documents. If you have trouble finding the information you need or understanding what you do find please contact the lab manager and he will help you with your questions.

      5. Unit 4 self-check quiz
        1. 1) MSDS stands for:
          1. b
        2. a) Material Specific Document System
        3. b) Material Safety Data Sheet
        4. c) Material Safety Document System
        5. d) All of the above
        6. 2) The MSDS's are located:
          1. e
        7. a) at the entrance of the lab
        8. b) in the file cabinet in the lab manager's office
        9. c) at the parent company of the chemical
        10. d) all major hospital data links
        11. e) all of the above
        12. 3) T / F You need permission to look at the MSDS's.
          1. False
        13. 4) T / F You may obtain a copy of the MSDS's for your personal use if you so desire.
          1. True
  4. Return to Safety and Protocol Main Page

Solvents used in the IML:

Chemical Abbreviation Fire Hazard Toxicity Hazard TLV ppm Odor Threshold Toxic Effects
Acetone ACE Extreme Low 750 140 ppm (sweet/fruity) Irritates eyes, nose and throat; headaches; skin dryness
Freon TF Low Low 1000 Variable Dries skin; light headedness
Isopropyl Alcohol IPA Extreme Low 400 20 ppm (sharp/musty) Dries skin; irritates eyes, nose and throat; drowsiness
Methyl Isoamylketone MIAK Moderate Extreme 50 0.05 ppm (sweet/sharp) Irritates eyes, nose and throat; may cause weakness, dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, or kidney damage
Methyl Isobutylketone MIBK Extreme Extreme 50 0.3 ppm (sweet/sharp) Irritates eyes, nose and throat; may cause weakness, dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, vomiting, or kidney damage
Methyl Ethylketone MEK Extreme Extreme 200 2-100 ppm (misty) Irritation of eyes and nose; intoxication, headache, and dizziness
Ethyl Lactate Positive Photo Resist Moderate Low None None (fruity/ester) Combustible liquid; skin, eye, respiratory irritant; nervous system toxin
Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate PGMEA Moderate Low None Very low (slightly sweet odor) Irritant; may cause itching, redness and burns to skin; ingestion may cause diarrhea, kidney and liver damage
N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone or M-Pyrol NMP Moderate Extreme 25 Unknown (pungent) Readily absorbed through intact skin; vapors may cause eye, skin, and nose irritation; eye contact with liquid may cause severe damage
Trans 1, 2 dichloroethylene DCE Extreme Moderate 200 0.08 ppm (sweet) Eye irritation; poor coordination, drowsiness, toxic vapors released when heated
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