Denton Vacuum E-beam Evaporator 

Denton Vacuum - Quality, Service, Value
1259 North Church St.
Moorestown, NJ, USA 08057
Contact Information:
  Faculty Contact:   Aaron Hawkins 
  Staff Contact:   Joe Bussio
  Student Contact:   Grant Stagg 

Maintenance Request for Denton Vacuum E-beam Evaporator 



  • All depositions must be approved by Dr. Hawkins
  • Do NOT deposit anything containing iron. The only materials that can be deposited are Ni, SiO2, Al, Au, Cr, Ti, SnO2, Ge
  • Never operate the high vacuum (TURBO) pump without the roughing (MECH) pump being on


General Information

The Denton Vacuum E-beam Evaporator is primarily used to deposit metal on silicon wafers. For these depositions to occur, >the wafer and material to be deposited must first be brought to a very low pressure (high vacuum). This vacuum >is usually in the range of 1x10-5 torr. The material to be deposited must be capable of vaporizing > for the deposition to be successful. Once at a high vacuum, an electron beam is >focused on the crucible containing the deposition material until the material begins to evaporate. As the material > in the crucible evaporates, its vapor will begin to coat the inside surface of the chamber. The Inficon Deposition > Meter utilizes a quartz crystal monitor to accurately display the thickness and rate of the deposition. Also, a > shutter is used to block the electron beam from hitting the deposition material until everything is ready for the deposition.

Equipment Specifications

LCD Touch-screen / Inficon Deposition Monitor / Sightglass and Mirror Stand / Chiller












Operating Procedures


  1. Ensure that the Roughing, High Vac, and Vent valves are all off.
  2. Vent the chamber.


  1. Load the substrate.
  2. Load the evaporation material.
  3. Check the mirrors.
  4. Check the crystal life. 


  1. Close the vent valve.
  2. Turn on the Mechanical Pump.
  3. Open the Roughing Valve. 
  4. Wait for 6 minutes, and prepare the chamber for evaporation.
    1. Close the Shutter.
    2. Start rotation.
    3. Program the crystal monitor:
      1. Tooling factor 1.
      2. Tooling factor 2.
      3. Density.
      4. Z-Ratio.
  5. Close the Roughing Valve.
  6. Open the High-Vac valve.
    1. Double check the pressure and valves on the intermediate screen before confirming that the valve should be opened.
  7. Turn on the ion gauge.
  8. Wait for CHAMBER IG to read 5.5 E-5.
  9. Turn on the temporary workaround switch
  10. Turn on the e beam power supply and beam controller


  1. Start the crystal monitor, and zero the display.
  2. Turn on Voltage then turn on the Emission and ramp the current to the desired level.
    1. Ramp the current at a rate of 4 seconds per 10 tick-marks on the dial.
  3. Open the shutter, and monitor the deposition.
  4. Close the shutter when the desired thickness has been reached.
  5. Ramp the current back down to zero, and turn off the Voltage/Emission.


  1. Wait 5-10 minutes for the system to cool.
  2. Close the High-Vac valve.
  3. Wait for CHAMBER IG to read 1.0 E-4.
  4. Turn off the temporary workaround switch
  5. Turn off the ion gauge.
  6. Turn off the Mech Pump.
  7. Turn on the Vent valve.


  1. Unload the substrate and material.
  2. Vacuum the chamber for 6 minutes.
  3. Shut off the crystal monitor, e-beam power supply, close the Roughing valve, and shut off the Mech Pump.